# Formal Charge of a Diatomic Molecule?

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a)What is the formal charge on the carbon atom in CO? Use the periodic table as needed.

Express the formal charge numerically (e.g., +1).

b)What is the formal charge on the oxygen atom in CO? Use the periodic table as needed.

Express the formal charge numerically (e.g., +1).

• a) Formal charge on carbon C atom in carbon monoxide CO molecule = -1 (negative 1)

b) Formal charge on oxygen O atom in carbon monoxide CO molecule = 1 (positive 1)

DETAILS:

In chemistry, a formal charge (FC) is a partial charge on an atom in a molecule assigned by assuming that electrons in a chemical bond are shared equally between atoms, regardless of relative electronegativity (Wikipedia).

The formal charge of any atom in a molecule can be calculated by the following equation: FC = number of valence electrons of the atom in isolation – lone pair electrons on this atom in the molecule – half the total number of electrons participating in covalent bonds with this atom in the molecule. (Wikipedia).

FC for C in CO. First you have to know the covalent bond between C and O: Is it single, double, or triple. The answer is it is a triple bond. Because carbon is in Group 4 of the periodic table it has 4 valence electrons, and it wants to have a total of 4 bonds. Since it has only 3 bonds (one triple bond), the electron-pair that would go into the fourth (missing bond) forms a “lone pairs”.

So by the formula above FC of Carbon (in CO) = 4 (group 4) 4 – 2 (1 lone pair) – (6/2) (half electons in bonds) = 2 – 3 = -1. Note that you use all the electrons in the bonds (2 electrons per bond times 3 bonds = 6).

And FC of Oxygen O in CO = 6 (group 6) – 2 (1 lone pair) – 6/2 (bonds) = +1.

Source(s): Wikipedia, “Formal Charge”
• The O2 molecule (like each and every molecules) has no value. that’s formed by the union of two Oxygen ATOMS. The value on a transition metallic cation is figured from the unfavorable expenses of its anions. in case you have been given Hg by itself, possibly they needed you to form an amalgam.

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