The hydrolysis of polysaccharides to soluble sugars is called “saccharification”. Malt made from barley is used as a source of β-amylase to break down starch into the disaccharide maltose, which can be used by yeast to produce beer. Other amylase enzymes may convert starch to glucose or to oligosaccharides.
Basically, the moisture content and hydrology of the plant’s surroundings. The dampness correlates with the water content of the atmosphere. If the air is extremely damp, then it is humid. This can affect the transpirational pull of plants as the air around it has a different water content. The water within plants exits via transpiration and with the aid of adhesion-cohesion mechanism and water potential. So, if water cannot exit easily due to the external factor of humidity [or moisture], water is more likely to be contained within the cells and renderring them more dilute, i.e. higher water potential, less sucrose concentration. The converse is also true, leading to high solute potential because of less water but more sucrose. The variation of solute and water potential will then affect the movement of water molecules by the osmotic pressure. Hence, when the cells of stomata are high in solute, water enters easily because the stomata is now hypertonic to the neighbouring cells, and vice versa. The water content of the cells will then cause the cells [guard cells of stomata] to expand or shrink, thus controlling the opening of the stomata. Other factors such as the sunlight, will alter the osmotic pressure of the guard cells of stomata. If there is sunlight, sucrose is produced through photosynthesis, thus increasing the solute potential of the guard cells. Then the same thing occurs as the case mentioned above on water content.